Categories
International and Public Relations

In order to get the most out of this course, students are encouraged to select a

In order to get the most out of this course, students are encouraged to select a topic that is of interest to you. Perhaps you may choose to study an agency of particular interest to you for employment, public knowledge, or for higher education purposes. First, you should ask yourself the following questions: Is this topic interesting enough to me to provide a thorough analysis for grading? Am I interested in evaluating this program or policy issue? Can I provide quantitative or qualitative analysis on this subject? Please see example statements below to ask yourself as you create your proposal: ▪ Would I like to study productivity problems in an agency and recommend improvements? ▪ Would I like to study a budget in a city and suggest changes in format and strategy? ▪ Would I like to provide a comparative analysis of hazard mitigation between federal, state, and local agencies? Further considerations: ▪ Who would benefit from the information provided in this study? ▪ Would the study contribute to your own existing non-‐profit or organization? ▪ What is the purpose and objectives of your study? ▪ What are your goals and what do you plan to accomplish? ▪ How could you bridge the gap between your knowledge from the MPA courses and the topic of study? ▪ CAN THIS PROJECT BE COMPLETED WITHIN THE TIMEFRAME WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE INTEGRITY OR QUALITY?
Various Project Approaches: ▪ Policy investigation study ▪ Organizational evaluation ▪ Management analysis ▪ Strategic plan ▪ Program evaluation ▪ Case study ▪ Process improvement ▪ Work operations study Methodologies: ▪ Inspection or evaluation ▪ Focus groups ▪ Cost/Benefit Analysis ▪ Performance measurement ▪ Interviews ▪ Survey Mandatory Components of Project: A. Executive Summary: This is the preface or overview of your study. It should be written when the study is complete. This will be one of the last steps of the project. B. Introduction: Here you will give a clear and concise definition or statement of the research topic, what you believe the likely outcome or findings will be, the relevance of the study as it relates to public administration. You should also provide some history on the topic and what developments or observations have been made over time. C. Analytic Framework: Otherwise known as the literature review, this component incorporates theoretical concepts, scholarly journals, and professional literature, as well as a comparison and contrast to other studies, data, and perspectives. The part of the project lays the foundation for where the topic originated and where you plan to take this project. At this point, the project is like an additional part of a previous study but in this case, you are incorporating your topic of study to pre-‐existing studies. D. Methodology: This answers the “how” part of your study. The various methodologies that were mentioned previously show how you plan on conducting the measurable part of your study. This may be through interviews, study, a cost/benefit analysis, etc. You will also provide a step-‐ by-‐step explanation of the way in which you decided to measure your findings. This is where you explain the validity of your results as well. E. Findings: You may use graphs, charts, pie charts, etc. However, these types of components cannot be counted towards the page requirement and must be included in an appendix. You will answer the research question stated in your introduction. All findings must be thoroughly explained. Additionally, footnotes must be included in this section. The purpose of the footnotes is to provide clarity of the data presented. It also shows attribution to material or thoughts used that may not be your own. Appendices are usually used to explain lengthy content like transсrіpts, in-‐depth interviews, details of a cost/ benefit analysis etc. F. Conclusion: Future studies, recommendations, concerns and the impact of the research needs to be explained here. In the analytic framework, you identified any findings that were relevant to your project. Here, you will relate those previous findings to your existing findings and the current findings of others. G. References: Using the American Psychological Association Publication Manual. A list of references must be included to prevent plagiarism. A failure to adhere to AP style will result in a deduction of points. The references should be in the correct format and listed in alphabetical order. H. PowerPoint Presentation: In addition to submitting the final paper, you are to submit a short PowerPoint presentation through blackboard as well.

Categories
International and Public Relations

In order to get the most out of this course, students are encouraged to select a

In order to get the most out of this course, students are encouraged to select a topic that is of interest to you. Perhaps you may choose to study an agency of particular interest to you for employment, public knowledge, or for higher education purposes. First, you should ask yourself the following questions: Is this topic interesting enough to me to provide a thorough analysis for grading? Am I interested in evaluating this program or policy issue? Can I provide quantitative or qualitative analysis on this subject? Please see example statements below to ask yourself as you create your proposal: ▪ Would I like to study productivity problems in an agency and recommend improvements? ▪ Would I like to study a budget in a city and suggest changes in format and strategy? ▪ Would I like to provide a comparative analysis of hazard mitigation between federal, state, and local agencies? Further considerations: ▪ Who would benefit from the information provided in this study? ▪ Would the study contribute to your own existing non-‐profit or organization? ▪ What is the purpose and objectives of your study? ▪ What are your goals and what do you plan to accomplish? ▪ How could you bridge the gap between your knowledge from the MPA courses and the topic of study? ▪ CAN THIS PROJECT BE COMPLETED WITHIN THE TIMEFRAME WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE INTEGRITY OR QUALITY?
Various Project Approaches: ▪ Policy investigation study ▪ Organizational evaluation ▪ Management analysis ▪ Strategic plan ▪ Program evaluation ▪ Case study ▪ Process improvement ▪ Work operations study Methodologies: ▪ Inspection or evaluation ▪ Focus groups ▪ Cost/Benefit Analysis ▪ Performance measurement ▪ Interviews ▪ Survey Mandatory Components of Project: A. Executive Summary: This is the preface or overview of your study. It should be written when the study is complete. This will be one of the last steps of the project. B. Introduction: Here you will give a clear and concise definition or statement of the research topic, what you believe the likely outcome or findings will be, the relevance of the study as it relates to public administration. You should also provide some history on the topic and what developments or observations have been made over time. C. Analytic Framework: Otherwise known as the literature review, this component incorporates theoretical concepts, scholarly journals, and professional literature, as well as a comparison and contrast to other studies, data, and perspectives. The part of the project lays the foundation for where the topic originated and where you plan to take this project. At this point, the project is like an additional part of a previous study but in this case, you are incorporating your topic of study to pre-‐existing studies. D. Methodology: This answers the “how” part of your study. The various methodologies that were mentioned previously show how you plan on conducting the measurable part of your study. This may be through interviews, study, a cost/benefit analysis, etc. You will also provide a step-‐ by-‐step explanation of the way in which you decided to measure your findings. This is where you explain the validity of your results as well. E. Findings: You may use graphs, charts, pie charts, etc. However, these types of components cannot be counted towards the page requirement and must be included in an appendix. You will answer the research question stated in your introduction. All findings must be thoroughly explained. Additionally, footnotes must be included in this section. The purpose of the footnotes is to provide clarity of the data presented. It also shows attribution to material or thoughts used that may not be your own. Appendices are usually used to explain lengthy content like transсrіpts, in-‐depth interviews, details of a cost/ benefit analysis etc. F. Conclusion: Future studies, recommendations, concerns and the impact of the research needs to be explained here. In the analytic framework, you identified any findings that were relevant to your project. Here, you will relate those previous findings to your existing findings and the current findings of others. G. References: Using the American Psychological Association Publication Manual. A list of references must be included to prevent plagiarism. A failure to adhere to AP style will result in a deduction of points. The references should be in the correct format and listed in alphabetical order. H. PowerPoint Presentation: In addition to submitting the final paper, you are to submit a short PowerPoint presentation through blackboard as well.

Categories
International and Public Relations

Diharapkan dapat digunakan oleh tenaga kesehatan sebagai alat skrining deteksi dini terhadap gangguan tidur yang dialami anak remaja.

BAB 1
PENDAHULUAN
1.1 Latar Belakang
Tidur merupakan kebutuhan dasar bagi setiap manusia dan memegang
peranan penting dalam perkembangan anak. Tidur tidak hanya berdampak
pada perkembangan fisik maupun emosional, namun juga sangat erat
hubungannya dengan fungsi kognitif, pembelajaran, dan atensi (Liu et al.,
2005). Pada kondisi istirahat dan tidur ini memberikan fungsi homeostatik
bagi tubuh yang bersifat menyegarkan dan sangat penting untuk termoregulasi
normal dan penyimpanan energi (Kaplan dan Sadock, 2015).
Pola tidur yang baik dan teratur dapat memberikan efek yang bagus
terhadap kesehatan (Guyton dan Hall, 2012). Perubahan pola tidur umumnya
disebabkan oleh tuntutan aktifitas sehari-hari yang menyebabkan
berkurangnya kebutuhan untuk tidur, hal ini menyebabkan sering mengantuk
yang berlebihan pada siang harinya (Potter dan Perry, 2005).
Kebutuhan tidur setiap orang berbeda-beda. Banyak orang dengan
penidur panjang (long-sleeper) yang memerlukan waktu tidur 9 hingga 10 jam
pada malam hari sedangkan yang lain adalah penidur pendek (short-sleeper)
yang hanya membutuhkan tidur kurang dari 6 jam setiap malam. Lama tidur
tidak selalu berhubungan dengan gangguan tidur (Kaplan dan Sadock, 2015).
Gangguan tidur didefinisikan sebagai pola tidur yang tidak
memuaskan bagi orang tua, anak atau dokter yang dicirikan dengan gangguan
dalam jumlah, kualitas atau waktu tidur pada seorang individu (Sadeh et al.,
2000). Gangguan tidur yang umum pada masa kanak-kanak dan remaja, dan
berkaitan dengan neurokognitif dan gangguan psikososial serta peningkatan
beban pengasuh (Moturi and Avis, 2010). Diagnosis gangguan tidur sulit
ditegakkan, hal ini disebabkan oleh perbedaan pola tidur pada setiap tahap
perkembangan anak dan toleransi keluarga terhadap perilaku tidur anak sangat
bervariasi ( Thiedke, 2001).
National Institute of Health menyimpulkan bahwa kelompok yang
berisiko tinggi mengalami gangguan tidur adalah remaja. Hal ini terbukti
karena pada remaja terjadi perubahan dramatis dalam pola tidur-bangun
meliputi durasi tidur yang kurang, waktu tidur yang tertunda, dan adanya
perbedaan pola tidur pada hari kerja dan akhir pekan, maka kualitas tidur
remaja cenderung berkurang (Haryono et al., 2009).
Dibandingkan tahap usia lainnya pola tidur remaja juga berbeda karena
pada tahapan tumbuh kembang ini terjadi perubahan hormonal dan pergeseran
irama sirkadian. Hal tersebut menyebabkan remaja mulai mengantuk pada
tengah malam sedangkan dipagi hari mereka harus bangun untuk berangkat ke
sekolah (Tagaya et al., 2004).
Prevalensi gangguan tidur pada remaja dari berbagai penelitian
menunjukkan hasil yang bervariasi. Liu dkk mendapatkan 21,2 % anak usia 2-
12 tahun di Beijing mengalami gangguan tidur (Liu et al., 2010). Penelitian
Ohida dkk di Jepang terhadap siswa SLTP dan SLTA menunjukkan prevalensi
gangguan tidur pada remaja bervariasi mulai dari 15,3% hingga 39,2%
bergantung pada jenis gangguan tidur yang dialami (Ohida et al., 2004).
Penelitian oleh Bruni dkk mengenai gangguan tidur pada remaja
menggunakan Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) mendapatkan
prevalensi gangguan tidur adalah 44,21% dimana jenis gangguan tidur yang
sering ditemukan adalah gangguan memulai dan mempertahankan tidur (
Bruni et al., 1996). Penelitian di Indonesia yang dilakukan oleh Haryono dkk
pada murid sekolah menengah pertama berusia 12-15 tahun di Jakarta Timur
didapatkan prevalensi gangguan tidur sebesar 62,9% dengan menggunakan
SDSC, dimana jenis gangguan tidur yang paling sering ditemui adalah
gangguan transisi tidur-bangun (Haryono et al., 2009). Natalita dkk
melaporkan bahwa berdasarkan pemeriksaan wrist actigraphy didapatkan
rerata waktu subjek tidur adalah pukul 22:12 WIB dan waktu bangun pukul
05:55 WIB, sehingga total waktu tidur 6 jam 47 menit (Natalita et al., 2011).
Pola tidur yang buruk pada anak-anak akan menyebabkan prestasi
sekolah yang rendah, hiperaktif, kecemasan, depresi, gangguan tingkah laku
dan emosi (Meltzer et al., 2010). Periode kurang tidur dapat menyebabkan
menurunnya kemampuan berkonsentrasi, membuat keputusan dan
berpartisipasi dalam aktivitas sehari-hari. Kurang tidur dalam waktu lama
kadang-kadang dapat menyebabkan kekacauan ego, halusinasi dan waham
(Kaplan dan Sadock, 2015). Dampak gangguan tidur pada remaja adalah
meningkatkan angka ketidakhadiran di sekolah, mempengaruhi prestasi
akademis, meningkatkan risiko penggunaan alkohol, rokok dan risiko
terjadinya obesitas serta menurunkan daya tahan tubuh (Liu et al., 2010).
Diagnosis gangguan tidur pada remaja sulit ditegakkan, hal ini
dikarenakan gangguan tidur sering tidak disampaikan oleh remaja, selain itu
pada usia remaja pola tidur tidak lagi menjadi pusat perhatian orang tua. Oleh
karena itu gangguan tidur pada remaja sering tidak terdiagnosa dan akhirnya
tidak terobati dengan baik (Haryono et al., 2009).
Baku emas untuk mendiagnosa gangguan tidur adalah
polysomnography (PSG). Alat ini memiliki kekurangan karena mahal,
memerlukan rawat inap dan tenaga ahli untuk menginterpertasikan hasilnya.
Alternatif alat untuk mendiagnosis gangguan tidur adalah wrist actigraphy,
berbentuk seperti jam tangan dan tidak memerlukan tenaga ahli untuk
membaca hasil parameter tidur. Namun alat ini belum tersedia di Indonesia
(Natalita et al., 2011)
Uji tapis gangguan tidur dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai metoda,
salah satunya dengan Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) yang
dapat mendeteksi adanya enam jenis gangguan tidur pada anak dengan
mengingat pola tidur anak dalam keadaan sehat selama enam bulan terakhir.
Melalui metode SDSC dapat dideteksi gangguan tidur dan jenis gangguan
tidur yang dialami anak usia 6-15 tahun. Metode SDSC sering digunakan
karena prinsip analisis komponen yang kuat, normalitas yang distandarisasi
dan usia yang dipakai sesuai dengan usia subjek yang diteliti (Bruni et al.,
1996).
Data dari Dinas Pendidikan Kota Padang pada tahun 2015-2016
didapatkan bahwa terdapat tiga SMP Negeri peringkat teratas setiap tahunnya
yang sudah menggunakan sistem penilaian terbaru dengan sistem kurikulum,
yaitu SMP Negeri 1 Padang, SMP Negeri 8 Padang dan SMP Negeri 12
Padang. Studi pendahuluan didapatkan dari masing-masing sekolah menengah
pertama, bahwa terdapat kriteria ketuntasan minimal (KKM) tertinggi yaitu
pada SMP Negeri 1 Padang.
Berdasarkan uraian di atas, penulis akan melakukan penelitian
mengenai hubungan gangguan tidur terhadap prestasi akademik pada murid
SMP Negeri 1 Padang.
1.2 Rumusan Masalah
1. Bagaimana prevalensi dan gambaran pola gangguan tidur pada murid
SMP ?
2. Bagaimana gambaran prestasi akademik murid SMP ?
3. Apakah terdapat hubungan antara gangguan tidur terhadap prestasi
akademik murid SMP ?
1.3 Tujuan Penelitian
1.3.1 Tujuan Umum
Mengetahui hubungan gangguan tidur yang dialami oleh murid SMP
terhadap prestasi akademik di sekolah.
1.3.2 Tujuan Khusus
1. Mengetahui prevalensi dan pola gangguan tidur yang dialami murid
SMP.
2. Mengetahui gambaran prestasi akademik murid SMP.
3. Mengetahui dan menganalisis apakah ada hubungan gangguan tidur
terhadap prestasi akademik murid SMP.
1.4 Manfaat Penelitian
1.4.1 Bidang Akademik
1. Mengetahui prevalensi dan pola gangguan tidur pada anak remaja
SMP.
2. Mengetahui hubungan antara: usia, jenis kelamin, stress, factor
lingkungan, dan prestasi akademik terhadap gangguan tidur pada
anak remaja SMP.
1.4.2 Bidang Pengembangan Penelitian
Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pemahaman
mengenai pengaruh gangguan tidur terhadap prestasi akademik anak
remaja di sekolah.
1.4.3 Bidang Pengabdian Masyarakat
1. Dapat memberi gambaran mengenai pola gangguan tidur pada anak
remaja SMP.
2. Skala gangguan tidur SDSC (sleep disturbance scale for children)
diharapkan dapat digunakan oleh tenaga kesehatan sebagai alat
skrining deteksi dini terhadap gangguan tidur yang dialami anak
remaja.
3. Memberikan pengetahuan kepada masyarakat tentang gangguan tidur
dan pencegahannya.